Holding the breath in pranayama: how much and why?

Today we’ll talk about the benefits of holding your breath including in the process of https://www.julianalucky.com/post/spectra-breast-pump. Many pranayamas involve holding (kumbhaka). Why is it necessary and what benefits does it bring on the physical and energetic levels?

N.B. Everything written here was not invented by me and I do not claim authorship of the information presented. This article is a retelling of one of the chapters of the book by Andre Van Lisbet “Pranayama. The path to the secrets of yoga ”.

The benefits of kumbhaka and its varieties
Holding your breath stimulates cellular respiration. This type of breathing involves all the cells in the body. As Andre Van Lisbeth notes,

“The activation of the cells leads to the revitalization of the organism and the acceleration of all biological processes. The liberated energy serves for psychophysiological purposes <…> Western people, who live mainly in closed rooms, have few opportunities to stimulate cellular respiration. Practicing pranayama exercises ensures that this gap is filled by improving vitality and helping the body to cope with fatigue. ”

The effect of holding the breath depends on its duration.

Kumbhaka up to 20 seconds
A delay of 3 to 20 seconds promotes better oxygen uptake. Usually, only 6% of the 21% oxygen in the air is absorbed during breathing. That is, the exhaled air contains 14-15% oxygen. Thanks to kumbhaka, the efficiency of breathing increases.

A delay of this duration has no contraindications and can be practiced anywhere.

Kumbhaka up to 90 seconds
A delay of 20 to 90 seconds makes the result even more effective.

At the physiological level, it:

Alters blood circulation. That is why it is better to perform it in the Lotus Pose (Padmasana) or in the Diamond Pose (Vajrasana) – this allows you to stop the blood flow to the legs and increase the blood flow to the brain and heart.
Changes metabolism: to obtain oxygen, sugar stores are broken down.
Increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and raises the body temperature.
At the level of the nervous system, such a delay restores the nervous balance. By acting on the vagus nerve (the central control point of the parasympathetic nervous system), it protects the body from overexcitation. That is why pranayama with holding the breath is so useful for a modern person who often has poor sleep and tense nerves.

Kumbhaka from 90 seconds and above
A delay of 90 seconds to several minutes can help restore lost body functions. Here you can turn to the hypothesis of Professor Filatov, who suggested that

“Cells, when exposed to unfavorable, but not fatal conditions, begin to produce stimulants that can activate the work of the whole organism.”

Holding the breath for such a period of time is recommended to be performed only under the supervision of a teacher.

Pranayama is the source of youth
Add pranayama to your practice and train your breath holding to improve your nervous system and overall physical condition.

EFFECTIVE ASANA BALANCE

Sometimes in the morning after sleeping, it can be difficult for us to come to our senses and start practicing https://www.julianalucky.com/post/9-ways-to-practice-mindfulness-with-kids. This is due to the fact that the body was practically in a motionless state and the centers of the brain regulating the coordination of movements had not yet been fully involved in the work. In order to get oneself out of this inert state, there is a wonderful tool in the arsenal of hatha yoga – balance asanas on one leg, which, due to their impact on the cerebellum, contribute to the activation of the body as a whole. Cerebellum – “small brain” – a part of the brain responsible for the coordination of movements, regulation of balance and muscle tone, involved in the processes of higher nervous activity: the accumulation of experience, the development of memory, thinking.

One of the most effective asanas in this situation is Vrikshasana – “Pose of the Tree”. The pose is quite simple. However, it gives a good muscle load: it strengthens the spine and legs, opens the pelvis, teaches you to remain calm, focused mind, composure and increases willpower. The static nature of the asana is only visible.

Rooted and frozen like a tree, inside we constantly maintain tension and upward thrust. Like a tree stretching towards the sun, we strive upward with all our essence on the physical and mental planes. It is recommended to include Vrikshasana in your morning practice.

According to Kaushtub Desikachar, the son and disciple of yoga master T.K.V. Desikachara: “She teaches us to stick to the intended path, no matter what obstacles.”

YOGA AS A TOOL FOR GETTING RID OF EXCESS WEIGHT

Here are 2 reasons for gaining weight on https://www.julianalucky.com/post/mommy-and-me-yoga-benefits.
It could be genetics that “holds” the weight when we are stressed, or it could be having an unpleasant habit of stress eating.

Regardless of why weight gain (or inability to lose weight) occurs, how you deal with the problem is important.
Constant stress throws the body into survival mode. As a consequence, sleep is disturbed, which negatively affects digestion.

So, people who are stressed often overeat. Official science tells us that stress causes cravings for sugar, forcing you to make appropriate (increasing your volume) food choices. Many people tend to eat more when they are emotionally or physically uncomfortable.
Foods consisting mostly of fat and sugar do soothe the brain in the short term, and you may experience comfort. The problem is that it doesn’t last, so you’ll need more and more servings of fatty or sugary foods to keep your mood good.

Explore new methods of self-soothing. For many of us, food is love.
We often use food for comfort, comfort, pleasure, and relief from difficult emotions that we don’t know how to manage. We really need a subject on the nature of emotions in school. Fortunately, there are many other ways to calm down and understand our experiences and emotions besides emptying our refrigerators.

Below you’ll find some tips to help you calm down:
Spend a few minutes taking slow, deep breaths, relaxing your muscles and saying to yourself that everything is okay;
Practice mindfulness by focusing on what you are doing in the moment.
Take long walks;
practice compassion for yourself and all beings;
smile as it releases endorphins;
go out into nature, contemplate the trees, be filled with the scent of flowers;
breathe calmly, imagining that you have enough time in the future to make time for daily meditation;
move your body onto your yoga mat.

The problem is that when you’re regularly stressed, you probably tend to pull away from your body because it’s so bogged down in tension. Yoga can help with that. When you practice yoga properly, it’s amazing how effective it is at calming the mind, releasing tension and bringing you back to harmony. It is also great for overcoming emotions such as guilt, anger or fear that cause stress.
One of the basic principles of yoga is the practice of contentment and acceptance toward yourself and others. If you’re holding on to some weight, you’re probably feeling very heavy, so if you don’t judge yourself for a while, each day will feel easy, like heaven.

In the long run, yoga trains your parasympathetic nervous system so you can tolerate any stressful situations that come your way.

A young woman sitting outside in a yoga position looking very peaceful

Yoga is not only good for stress relief, but it also helps you lose weight by reconnecting with your body. When you do yoga, you feel better about yourself, which makes you take better care of yourself.

Yoga makes us more productive. Certainly, at first it will seem like there is no time to practice. Yes, indeed, you do need to make time to practice. You will quickly find that practicing yoga creates more time, making us more relaxed and focused. If you have a shaky belly, full rest and regular practice will help you lose it. Never stop, but know when your body needs rest.

Yoga is a very powerful tool, but requires regularity and a very thoughtful attitude.

It takes practice to understand that we are not the body, mind or ego, but the eternal soul. You can find peace through yoga.

Jnana Yoga. Directions of Yoga

Jnana yoga (or the yoga of wisdom, the yoga of knowledge) and  https://www.julianalucky.com/yoga-for-kids is one of the four main branches of yoga. Knowledge here does not mean intellectual or rational knowledge, but a kind of mystical, intuitive comprehension of things in themselves, experiencing the identity of the Atman (human soul and all living beings) and Brahman (God, the root cause of all things).

Cognition in jnana yoga is a wholly transcendent or spiritual state, not a concept that can be comprehended simply by means of the material mind. When in search of one’s true nature through self-awareness, false conceptions of reality are destroyed, to the point of erasing the distinction between knower, knower, and cognizer. In other words, a state of “nonduality” arises.

Jnana yoga is the yoga of the Vedas (the oldest surviving texts) and the early Upanishads (commentaries on the Vedas). In its classical variant Jnana yoga is closely connected to the teaching – Advaita Vedanta (the teaching of Non-dividendhood). The original idea of which is that the “true
Self” of man, was never separated from the Supreme mind and the main task of the practice is to remember one’s original state.

Adepts of this branch of yoga include such great Gurus as: Ramakrishna, Ramana Maharshi, Krishnamurti, Swami Vivekananda, and Muji.

Jnana Yoga deeply explores the subtleties of the human mind, the mental body (Manamaya-kosha) and the body of intellect and intuition, which according to yogic philosophy is called – Vijnanamaya-kosha), where the word kosha – means a receptacle. We will talk about these important aspects of yoga in more detail in the next classes.

So, as mentioned above, Jnana yoga deeply explores the subtleties of the human psyche. For example, the question, “Who am I?” is carefully considered until the capacity of the mind and its ability to think, reason, experience various emotions, form beliefs and construct concepts is exhausted.

In constant practice, when the intellect has exhausted its capabilities and can no longer provide a clear answer, because any answer to the question “Who am I,” is incapable of providing a comprehensible answer that cannot be refuted or understood, it is a temporary idea that is replaced by another. For example, if one identifies with an emotion, one sees that it changes rather quickly. With thoughts and role-playing, similar processes occur. Then consciousness expands and the subconscious begins its work. Concentrating on the inner, and minimizing the intake of external information, the mind sinks into its natural state, as Buddhists say – emptiness, as yoga practitioners say – clarity, as transpersonal psychologists say – the self or true nature. And one is freed from the confines of one’s mind. And, it is in this state, not in the feverish race of the brain, that the realization of one’s authentic self takes place. This is the basic task of all kinds of yoga.

The child does not want to learn: how to return motivation to study

Parents congratulate each other with the beginning of the school year, but many children, including in the photo of star families – not a festive mood. The long summer vacation, which is almost nowhere else in the world, is very relaxing – and in September it is necessary to additionally motivate children to study including go math 6th grade. What can parents do to restore a child’s desire to learn?

Is there a c

onnection between mental development and motivation?
Motivation is given to us by nature. Successful mastery of a new skill or cognitive achievement is inevitably followed by a surge of happiness hormones. So successful learning can even be felt on a physical level. The desire to learn appears when the child himself or herself wants to acquire new knowledge and skills.

At the same time, motivation is in no way connected with mental go math first grade and development and general abilities. The more a child wants to expand his or her understanding of the world, the more effort he or she makes to learn well. If there is no desire to learn new things, there is no desire to go to school.

How to keep the interest in learning: 9 ways
If your son or daughter does not show interest in learning, especially after the prolonged vacations, you should not give up. There are a number of ways to help build academic motivation.

Don’t apply pressure. Want your child to come to the idea that doing homework with go math 2 grade is a good thing? Never force him or her to do homework. Better explain that if you prepare in advance, you can write the test faster and be free earlier. Offer your child an interesting way to spend free time together: a walk in the park, a board game, etc.
Be sure to track and voice your progress. And it’s nice for an adult when their achievements are noticed. And for a child, it is especially valuable. Timely praise can motivate even the most desperate underachiever.
Show the benefits of learning by example. Children copy the behavior of adults. When I was a kid, there was no TV in my family, but all the adults – mom, dad, grandma – were desperate book lovers: books were read, discussed, given as gifts. I learned to read very early on – I guess I had no other choice.

Always be ready to assimilate new information, show how you can look for it and apply it. Use encyclopedias, reference books, search engines, as soon as there is any question, even if it seems silly: why is the grass green? What count Dracula looked like? Why the penguin knees? So you teach your child to operate with information and find answers. Gradually the questions can become more complicated. Put questions in front of your schoolchild that he is sure to be interested – so you can instill in him a desire to learn.

An example is the story of Denis and his mother, with whom they attended tennis lessons together. The boy was inspired by the activity of his mother, and she, despite the fact that she ran her own business, always found time for additional training and joint activities with her son.

Put an emphasis on the results achieved. Often parents only point out their child’s mistakes. Try to do the opposite – focus on successes. Even if there are 33 corrections in the essay, there are probably a couple or three well phrased phrases. Praise your son or daughter for them, tell them that they help to understand the essence of what is written. This way you can maintain interest even in those subjects that are difficult for a student.
“Eat the elephant” piece by piece. Often children don’t want to do “homework”, afraid that they will fail or make too many mistakes. All you need to do in this situation is to break a difficult task into parts. And then solve it in stages.
Take breaks. Firstly, a child’s brain periodically needs a rest. And secondly, the so-called Zeigarnik effect works, when the interrupted action wants to finish. Children come back to the task themselves if they are given a few minutes break. But some still need a reminder: “And remember, you wanted to solve that funny problem about rabbits?
Leave the child a reserve of energy for other activities. A schoolboy is unlikely to be happy if preparing lessons takes all his energy! It is in your power to organize his schedule. Explain that it is better to do the tasks when there is energy and time to spare. The ideal option – in the afternoon or in the evening after the walk. And then you can do something pleasant – play or watch a movie. This is a great motivator for children and adults alike.
Nastya’s parents make a monthly plan for entertaining evening activities. The list includes interesting walks, outdoor activities – all the things their daughter loves. An important condition for what is planned to happen is that everyone must do their homework. For example, Daddy should go grocery shopping, Mommy should cook dinner, and Nastya should do her homework.

Create a system of rewards. Find out what makes your child happy, and use that incentive as a “recharge. Get a “C” in history-let’s go see the movie they’re talking about with their parents! Such motivation pushes children to the feats – they diligently “pull up” even the most disliked subjects.
Expand the range of interests. The intensive learning process requires discharge. Sections, clubs, hobby clubs help children relieve stress after school. Additional communication helps to see where the knowledge gained at school can be useful. And why it is worth it to fill the gaps, for example, in physics or geometry.
Learning is a complex process with its ups and downs. A child is capable of overcoming most obstacles on their own. But support from parents is necessary. It is especially important when your own strength runs out. Sometimes all it takes is a couple of timely words of praise to get the desire to learn back.

Apply all the points or use them selectively – it’s up to you to decide. But do not rush things – give your child time to change.

How can I help my child with distance learning?

You have chosen alternative learning including counting, pennies and dimes in an online school. It may not be the usual form of mastering knowledge for you and your child, who is used to sitting at a desk and communicating directly with the teacher. The online school has its own rules and features, which you just need to get acquainted with in order to study effectively. Online learning is designed for children who can work independently without constant stimulation and pushing. It can teach a weakly motivated child to be independent and responsible. And it can become a powerful impetus for self-development and self-actualization. But this happens if your child can master this advanced technology of self-education without conflict.

How to achieve this?

Try to convince your child that the coercive system is a thing of the past. Everyone in today’s world understands the measure of responsibility and names and values of all coins they have for their lives. No one can help you become an educated and successful person if you don’t want to and learn to do it yourself. Distance education gives you a unique chance to prove to yourself what you are worth. But parents should realize that this level of responsibility for their child’s life comes with time. And the main goal of parents is to help their schoolchild understand this and create the most comfortable conditions for them to master the skills of online learning.

Let me give you some tips:

– Prepare for online learning technically. A computer, access to a network, a scanner, a printer, and a microphone are the minimum requirements for starting a class. You will also need A4 paper and a ballpoint pen to do your writing;

– Familiarize yourself with the features of the site to begin with. Examine the nature of communication with teachers, administration, the classroom teacher, and technical support. Also familiarize yourself with the progress of the lessons, topics, gradebook, and assignment schedule (timetable). Read the introductory chapter of each individual teacher’s course, which indicates the specifics of mastery of a particular subject;

– Make a study money word problems schedule for the week, month, semester, year. Of course, your child can study on his own schedule. But this sometimes leads to information overload, because by the end of the semester he will need to pass all the tests and get the required marks. In order to avoid a frantic and poor-quality study of subjects, make a student-friendly schedule that should correspond to the academic workload of a normal schoolchild. Do it with your child! We work according to the standard program of secondary schools. And the number of lessons coincides with the curriculum of public educational institutions.

For example, there are 2 literature lessons per week, 2 language lessons, 2 math lessons, 1 biology lesson, etc. You can find out how many of these should be in the plan from the schedule of lessons. Try not to deviate from the weekly schedule. This will help your child get organized and take responsibility for learning the subject.

And now the most important thing. How to motivate the student to study the subject and pass the course?

– Make learning comfortable. If your child is familiar with computers and has no difficulty communicating online, give them more freedom. This adult and serious form of learning can reveal unexpected talents of self-organization in him. After all, he’s not just playing “shooter” or wandering around the web looking for contacts that interest him, he’s doing serious business. Make him feel responsible!

– Control him. But do it tactfully. Keep track of his office hours on the school website. The administration and classroom teacher also see the time your child spends on the site and his progress through the course material. They try to signal to parents about the status of things in a timely manner. Make sure your student is not sitting at the computer from morning to night without a break. After each lesson, or even more often, we advise to hold a physical culture minute. Choose the one you like and periodically remind to perform it:

– P.S.
– superfitness minute
– fun exercise
– scoliosis prevention
– dance aerobics
– ten exercises
– morning exercises
– vigorous morning exercises
– 15 minutes Qigong exercises

– If your child is having difficulty, help him or her adjust to being productive on the computer. Teach him how to use the printer and scanner. If he is not good at something, it discourages learning. Go through several lessons with him. If you have any questions or comments about the course material or its presentation, please contact the administration or technical support. Monitor the communication between your child and the instructor. Even though this is a remote school, such contact should be a must. Feedback from the teacher is an important factor in learning. The child should see his successes and work on his mistakes. Make sure that, in addition to passing lessons, your schoolchild takes a walk, eats well, sits in a comfortable position, does not spoil his eyesight. Work on the learning material should take place in a comfortable, learning-friendly environment. Eliminate distractions. Relieve the student as much as possible from other activities during home lessons.

Teaching should bring the joy of learning, then you will see the result.

5 Easy Ways to Teach Your Child to Comprehend Texts

Because reading doesn’t equal comprehension

Students who are often said to be “better at math” are often bad readers. But it’s probably not because of any humanities or dyslexia, but because you just need to work with your kids. Including the use of 8th grade sbac practice test.

Why reading problems need to be addressed immediately
If you start talking about reading problems, you immediately think of young children with a poor phonetic set who struggle to decipher letters and make themselves understood. And then there are people – high school and college students – who think they can read, but actually have a lot of trouble understanding words, images, conclusions, and reasoning.

If a child deciphers a adjectives that start with i and their definitions well, we usually assume he or she reads well. But at the same time, a teacher might notice that a child “decodes” a text fluently, but doesn’t understand it. Either way, both children who can’t decode and children who don’t understand decoded text are all children with reading problems. The latter, however, are much less visible, and their problem is much more likely to escape the attention of adults. The child begins to fail tests and not understand half of what is taught in class at all.

That’s when the real difficulties come, and more often than not it happens in middle and high school.

The sooner you start addressing this problem, the better. But it’s best to remember that to get a complete fix, you don’t just need to practice – like reading passages and asking questions about them – but you need a comprehensive approach that includes several important things.

The comprehension skills and strategies listed below can be used for the entire class. Teachers can help students choose reading material appropriate to their current vocabulary and abilities so that in class, children read the text and work at levels that are accessible to each of them.

What to do if a child doesn’t understand what he or she is reading
1. Recent research shows that reading comprehension difficulties can stem from poor oral language development, which develops long before a child begins to learn to read. It turns out that students who have trouble reading comprehension also often understand fewer words spoken, that is, less of what they hear. They have a worse command of spoken grammar. So, to effectively address reading comprehension problems, educators may need to take an approach that teaches vocabulary and comprehension first in spoken language and only later in written language.

2. Children who have poor reading comprehension often suffer from little vocabulary, so it is helpful for them to spend a lot of time learning new words. One way is a multisensory approach: for example, pictures, mind maps, or mnemonic techniques. Improving their general language skills increases the likelihood that they will understand the words they encounter in a written text. Since it is impossible to know and remember every word, the child should be taught different types of context clues and how to use them to determine the meaning of unknown words.

3. Once a child has enough vocabulary to understand each word in a text he finds it difficult to pay attention and keep track of all the details or, for example, to access the indirect information and hidden meanings in the text.

In such a case, the educator can teach the child several cognitive text reading strategies to help: among them are annotation, SQ3R, and KWL charting. They help:

learn to discuss what they have read or to activate the knowledge gained while reading the text;
develop and ask questions about what they have read;
draw parallels between two texts or between what the child saw and read;
Make predictions about what will happen next;
Identify key words that will help answer questions later;
thinking aloud.
Each child can choose the strategy that works best for him or her. Extracting deeper meaning from a text through strategic thinking can be useful not only for reading comprehension, but also for writing.

4. Have students engage in reciprocal teaching-it encourages the child to take the lead and think about his or her thought process while reading. Teachers can use peer-learning during class discussion, with the text read aloud and then with the text read in groups. Students should divide into four types and then alternate among themselves.

Participant 1. The one who asks the question. He or she asks about parts of the lesson, discussion, or text that are unclear or confusing to help make a connection to previously learned material.
Participant 2. Someone who will capture the important stuff – such as details from the text or important discussion points.
Participant 3. Someone who will answer the questions posed by the first participant and will be responsible for making sure that the answers to those questions are clear to everyone.
Participant 4. Someone who will make predictions about what will happen next based on what has been presented, discussed, or read.
5. Students should definitely be taught text comprehension skills: they need to know what a sequence is, what the structure of the text and storyline are, how to draw a conclusion from what they read, what figurative language is, and what kinds it has. Students should be able to use the skills first with the text they hear the teacher read aloud and then with the text they read on their own and understand at their own level.

What is the right way to teach young children math. And should you.

There are things that are appropriate for a child’s age, and then there are things that are not. Often parents do not fully understand when and what it is time to do with their children. And when a child at the age of a year and a half or two says, “Come on, baby, we’ll learn letters and numbers,” it’s not appropriate. What’s age-appropriate? How do we practice touch math numbers with toddlers?

Play. Lots of
Play is a natural state for young children and is their main activity, including cognitive. Play is the best way to acquire information and skills. You want your child to understand something – play with him. The language of the game – the most understandable language for children.

2. Translate everything into body language.
Everything that we do with the child must be passed through his body. Through play and through the body.

At our classes with young children we translate everything into movements that the child understands. Wave one hand, wave two hands. Stand on one foot, pat one knee, hide one knee, hide two knees. Hide one ear. How many toes have I lifted, tap as many times. How many times I say meow, jump up and down. How many times I clapped, walk a few steps.

We translate one movement into another, and then we start to translate them into numbers. We speak to the child in the child’s body language, a language he or she understands. Ask him: “Are you a math magician addition“?

3. no abstractions
When they say “my child can count to 20”, “my child knows how to count to 100”, most often they mean that the child can say a patter or a rhyme “one-two-three-four-five-…” and so on. But that’s not counting yet.

How to. Draw a line and say, “Here I have 1, here I have 10, here I have 20, show me where I have 15. And when he counts up, then he will know where 15 is. But until he goes through all the steps in order, he doesn’t know.

What do we do when we do math activities with preschoolers?

First, we advise parents not to rush into counting.
Second, we use a variety of counting materials as much as possible. Anything we count, we have to count on some kind of object.
Example. For four-year-olds, for example, playing with counting beads is like magic or a trick in a circus. You can put any number of beads on a string – five of one color, five of another. This is quite enough for a small child. And then you clasp some beads in the middle in your fist: “How many beads have I hidden now? What color?”. And then the child says, “Well, let me tell you a riddle and you guess it.” He tells me, and I look at him and say, yeah, you hid one blue one and two red ones. The child unclenched his hand – and it’s true, one blue and one red!

We use everything: counting sticks, counting cubes and simply cubes, numicon and its Russian analogue which is called “Alice”, count on fingers (we necessarily count on fingers!)… When children touch all these 1-2-3-4-5 with their fingers, move from hand to hand or from pile to pile – they begin to understand them.

4. Choose, compare, do the same…
Basically, these are logical tasks. Identifying similarities, differences, patterns. And children cope with them, and do them with enthusiasm and very diligently.

Very young children (2-3 years) we ask them to put the dice: red on a red plate, blue – on a blue one. Sometimes children do not yet know what word for what color, but they cope with the task.

Everyone has done it, so we can move on. Here I’ll put three cubes of a tower, you fold the same. Many children say, “No, I’ll do it, and you do it again. That’s good, too. In this version, you can make a small mistake and ask your child, “I did exactly as you did? And look carefully? Or maybe this cube should be moved to the edge? Or a triangular cube turned the other way around?

5. Say .
And what other tower can be made of the same three cubes? Yes, a triangular cube on the side, not just on top. And now another one, similar to the first one, but it has a cube on the edge. And we voice everything we do. Because without speech, we’re not going anywhere. On, above, under, in the middle, on the edge… It’s important, it’s spatial thinking.

With children from four years old you can build according to schemes, and from five years old you can draw by the cells what you’ve built.

Classes with kids (ages 2-4) should be playful! Everything that the child learns, he must play with his body and touch it with his hands. The time for abstract concepts will come later. Right now, the child has to play, move, talk and touch!

Abacus

1. introduction

An abacus is usually very simple in construction and basically consists of a frame in which
balls are threaded from rods. These balls represent by their position a certain number, i.e.
it is based on a place value system.
The abacus is called the oldest calculating machine, although it is hardly used nowadays.
is used nowadays, sporadically from the Balkans to China. In Austria it is also called the slacker. How to use an abacus?

2. history

The origins are believed to be around 1100 BC in the Indo-Chinese cultural area,
Madagascar or Central Asia. For the today’s, in the European area
the abacus used in Europe today, its cultural origins lie in ancient
Greece, whereby this still had very little to do with the today’s
conception had to do. Likewise, a hand abacus developed in
ancient Rome, which was very similar to the Japanese.
Only by Adam Riese the calculating in the today usual
decimal system became popular and was perfected, so the “zero” was
was cleverly used for arithmetic. And yet, how to use an abacus?

3. different types of Abaki

Russian Abacus
This is called Stschoty, which means calculation.
It was preferred to the pocket calculator until the 90’s, but nowadays it is
but today it can only be found in rural areas.
The arithmetic beads are arranged horizontally, in rows, whereby
the 5th and 6th bead are of a different color.
A particular row contains only four arithmetic beads, although here it is
modern it can be called a joker, for example, to represent a comma.
Historically, it offered the possibility to calculate with quarters.
Chinese Abacus
Also called Suan Pan, it is still used today for learning basic arithmetic
basic arithmetic by children.
Here, the arithmetic beads are arranged in vertical rows
and have a two-part construction, because the frame is divided
by a crossbar into an upper and lower part
Roman hand abacus
Russian Stschoty
Chinese Suan Pan
Zach Anita
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separated.
The upper part is called heaven and contains 2 beads, each of which has the value 5 and
the lower one is called earth and contains 5 beads, each of which has the numerical value 1.
Japanese Abacus:
This is called Soroban and is a
further development of the Chinese Suan Pan.
The arithmetic beads are also arranged in vertical
rows, but there is only one bead above the
bead above the bar and four below the bar.
bar.
Here, with the minimum number of
beads, mathematical bundles of 5 are formed,
i.e. here a maximum of arithmetic is achieved with a
with a minimum number of beads.

4. the european abacus

Here the arithmetic beads are arranged horizontally to form
ten rows with ten beads each.
These are thus moved horizontally for arithmetic.
Since a written description of the functioning of a
European abacus contains a lot of pictures and a lot of text
I will not record it here.
But there is a very good video on Youtube about calculating the four basic arithmetic operations with the
the European abacus.
Input: The abacus in the year of mathematics

How to Study for the SHSAT Editing/Revising: What grammar rules do I need to know?

The absolute best thing you can do for yourself is to join a SHSAT
The absolute best thing you can do for yourself is to join a SHSAT

The editing/revising section is the shortest part of the SHSAT ELA section, but it is still quite important to your exam score. There are 11 questions, 3-5 of which will ask you to edit standalone sentences and 6-8 which will ask you to revise and edit within the context of the passage. Scpecialized high school test prep classes we feature free practice tests for the ACT, SAT, and AP tests. The latter of these also tests your reading comprehension to some extent, so don’t forget to take in the meaning of what you are reading while you are editing. We have some specific tips for you to read more carefully when you are tackling the questions in this section:

  • 1. Ask yourself whether something can be said in a less confusing manner. Are there words or phrases that are making the sentence more difficult to understand?
  • Are there run-on sentences? Could things be said more concisely without changing the meaning of the sentence?
  • Does any part of the sentence seem redundant or incorrect? Take note besides sentences that you don’t think sound correct.
  • Read the passage more for syntax and less for meaning, but don’t ignore meaning. It will come in handy to answer questions about purpose.
  • Identify specific errors. Is there a problem with the word choice? Are there problems with the tense used or the grammar? Perhaps there is a run-on sentence. Be sure to select the correct sentence that needs to be addressed.

To do well in this section of the exam, you must think holistically about the overall development of sentences and what their addition contributes to the meaning of the passage. For sentence questions, consider the usage of words and always keep grammar rules in the back of your head as you are reading. Most importantly, be sure to read carefully. Picking specialized high school test prep classes is an inescapable part of high school. If you need to, re-read the sentence again with the correct change.

What topics are guaranteed to be on the SHSAT?

After years and years of experience with the SHSAT, we’ve gained a deeper understanding of the topics on the exam. The math section of the exam revolves around a very specific subset of topics, which include but are not limited to: absolute value, age problems, algebraic expressions, angles, averages, characteristics of quadrilaterals, circles, combining like terms, consecutive integers, constant rate, coordinate geometry, factoring, fractions, inequalities, interior angles of a polygon, intersecting lines, isosceles and equilateral triangles, LCM, GCF, length of an arc, linear equations, mean/average, metric system, midpoint, mixed numbers, monomials, multi-step story problems, FOIL, negative and rational exponents, parallel lines and transversals, patterns, PEMDAS, probability, proportions, radicals, rates, ratios, revolutions, scale, scientific notation, similar triangles, slope of a line, special right triangles, statistics, time-shift problems, unit conversion, volume, and of course, word problems.

The ELA section of the exam holds revision/editing questions based on passages and sentences that will test your knowledge of grammatical conventions and reading comprehension. Specific topics include inferences, purpose, word choice, quotes, understanding poetry, and English conventions.

Best SHSAT Prep Course in New York City

We can’t stress it enough. The absolute best thing you can do for yourself is to join a SHSAT preparatory class. If you’re wondering which class you should join, the answer is simple and obvious. You can become a master of the SHSAT just like our resident shortcut master Mr. Tariq, just by joining us at Bobby-Tariq Tutoring Center. We are located in central Jackson Heights, which is accessible by the E, F, M, R, and 7 trains as well as a number of bus routes. Getting to us is simple, but our classes are anything but.Mr. Tariq’s job is to push students beyond the limits of their comfort zones and turn them into the scholars that they hope to be. It is far from easy to experience such a transformation on your own. That’s why Mr. Tariq and his SHSAT class are here to guide you along the way. By attending SHSAT courses at Bobby-Tariq Tutoring Center, you will be immersed in an environment with other students who are just as devoted to getting into their dream school as you are.At our SHSAT classes, you’ll learn master reading techniques that will teach you the most important concepts in SHSAT Reading, how to find evidence and supporting details for specific questions.Furthermore, you’ll learn all about the patterns that the test takers have developed but only we know after years and years of experience. You will easily be able to learn how to solve main idea, inference, purpose, and word choice questions. We have a complete list of grammar and writing rules including run-ons, tenses, and more. You’ll learn how to beast the ELA section by learning the most effective techniques. Our math prep will allow you to master geometry, transversals, and conversion questions by targeting the most effective shortcut strategies. Our practice tests are the most reliable on the market and will allow you to develop a realistic view of the real test so that you’re prepared on exam day.Our classes are four hours long and take place on the weekends. There are two sessions: 9AM to 1 PM and 1 PM to 5 PM. Our methods are ensured to get the best performance out of students and increase their SHSAT score significantly.